François Boucher (1703 – 1770), A putto. Sanguine heightened with white, 11 x 9 in. (280 x 230 mm). Executed circa 1750. Photo: Courtesy Didier Aaron, Inc.
NEW YORK, NY.- The Tenth Annual Master Drawings New York week will take place January 23 through January 30, with a Preview scheduled for Friday, January 22, at 30 leading art galleries on the Upper East Side’s “Gold Coast’ in New York.
Timed to coincide with New York’s major January art-buying events, including the Old Master auctions and The Winter Antiques Show, over the past decade Master Drawings New York has given top dealers from the US as well as the UK, France, Germany, Spain and Italy an opportunity to show their newest acquisitions to the largest assembly of drawings scholars and patrons to gather in New York each year.
Originally conceived as an annual walkthrough, the tenth iteration of Master Drawings New York has grown into a ‘must see’ event, receiving strong support as its range and influence has grown each year. Each exhibition is hosted by an expert specialist and many works on offer are newly discovered or have not been seen on the market in decades, if at all.
Critics applaud the fact that the most respected drawings dealers show important pencil, pen and ink and chalk, pastel and charcoal drawings, as well as oil on paper sketches and watercolours from the 16th through the 21st centuries.
New exhibitors in 2016 include Allan Stone Projects, (www.allanstoneprojects.com) a New York gallery founded in 1960 that has enjoyed sustained success mixing established artists with emerging and mid-career artists. Its exhibition is titled “Process and Presence: Mastery in Drawing” and includes figurative, landscape, still life and abstract works by prominent artists such as Arshile Gorky, Willem de Kooning, Wayne Thiebaud, Franz Kline, and Gaston Lachaise; the 130-year old Kraushaar Galleries, (www.kraushaargalleries.com) a highly recognized fine art source for important American art of the first half of the 20th century, as well as selected contemporary works; and Decouvert Fine Art of Rockport, MA, (www.decouvertfineart.com), specialists in French and Italian works from the 16th to 20th centuries. Also returning to MDNY in 2016 is Mary-Anne Martin Fine Art, (www.mamfa.com), an East Side gallery dedicated to the promotion of Mexican and Latin American art.
Willem de Kooning, Abstraction, c. 1945. Pastel and crayon on paper, 8 3-8 in x 11. Photo: Courtesy Allan Stone Projects.
Gunther Gerzso (1915-2000), Untitled (Landscape with Flying Figures) c. 1943-46. India ink on wove paper, from The Surrealist Sketchbook, containing 55 original drawings, mostly done with carbon transfer, some augmented with India ink and colored pencils, 8⅛ x 6½ in (207 x 165 mm). Photo: Courtesy Mary-Anne Martin Fine Art.
Gunther Gerzso (1915-2000), Untitled (Planets) c. 1943-46. Colored pencils on wove paper, from The Surrealist Sketchbook, 8.15 x 6.5 inches (20.7 x 16.5 cm). Photo: Courtesy Mary-Anne Martin Fine Art.
At Master Drawings New York the artworks on view cut across the full range of styles, centuries, mediums and genres and provide pricing options that are attractive both to seasoned and new collectors.
New York Old Masters specialist Margot Gordon and London dealer Crispian Riley-Smith collaborated to organize the first the New York event in 2006 and are delighted to see how well it has matured, with top tier dealers offering an incredibly diverse array of artworks from both legendary and less celebrated artists. A number of participating dealers also exhibit each July at a sister event, the annual LONDON ART WEEK, where Old Master auctions and museum exhibitions also vie for the attention of visiting museum officials and art patrons.
Margot Gordon says, “Drawings hold special appeal to art collectors. There are many different forms -- from rapid sketches the Italians call “schizzi,” or first thoughts called “primo pensiero,” to studies and finished works in their own right. You are invited to enter the artist’s mind and share his passion on a very personal level. It’s a strong motivator to those who love art. What’s more, with such a wide range of offerings, and appealing prices, drawings are often the most accessible option to collectors seeking access to an artist’s process.”
Vincenzo Gemito (Naples 1852 – 1929), Portrait of a young girl. Charcoal on paper, 429 x 299 mm. (16⅞ x 11¾ in.). Photo: Courtesy Margot Gordon Fine Arts.
Crispian Riley-Smith adds that "The backbone to the success of Master Drawings New York is the continued support of our fantastic exhibitors who each year manage to find amazing drawings and make incredible discoveries, as well as curating interesting and stimulating shows. The interest from the public grows in this sector with new clients discovering this exciting field, and we are fortunate to enjoy the continued support of loyal clients.
“Master Drawings New York has become popular with both private and institutional clients because it makes it convenient to see a number of exhibitions from the very top tier of world dealers in a single area of the city, and close by other venues they need to visit. For those interested in learning more about the quality and range of drawings on offer, there’s simply no better way to expose yourself to the very finest examples.”
Jan Josefsz. Van Goyen (Leiden 1596-1656 The Hague), The Beach and Church of Scheveningen with Wagons and Horses and Figures (recto); The Church of Scheveningen, circa 1645/50. Inscribed ‘J van Goyen’ (lower left) in pen and black ink and numbered on the verso also in pen and black ink ‘N 412’, black chalk, 98 x 150 mm. (3 7/8 x 5 7/8 in.). Photo: Courtesy Crispian Riley-Smith Fine Arts Ltd
Literature: H.-U. Beck, Jan van Goyen (1596-1656): ein Oeuvreverzeichnis, I, Einführung, Katalog der Handzeichnungen, Amsterdam, 1972, p.219, number 677 (illustrated recto only).
Provenance: Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 28 June 1960, lot 74 (part of a lot of 4 to Seiferheld for 82 gns); Seiferheld Gallery, New York, 1961; Private New York collection, till now.
Aert Schouman (Dordrecht 1710-1792 The Hague), A Cockerel Crowing. Pencil, pen and ink and watercolour and gum arabic, heightened with white, signed ‘A. Schouman. ad.f’ in pen and brown ink, 171 x 191 mm. Photo: Courtesy Crispian Riley-Smith Fine Arts Ltd
Provenance: Lord Fairhaven.
London dealer Stephen Ongpin says, “I have taken part in every edition of Master Drawings New York, and each year seems to be better than the previous one. I mean this not only in terms of the increasing number of private collectors, museum curators, scholars and lovers of drawings who visit my New York exhibitions each year during the week of Master Drawings New York, but also in the number of sales I have made during that period. There is something special about having the opportunity each year to exhibit and discuss a wide variety of drawings with like-minded people who are equally passionate about the special allure of these often intimate insights into an artist’s creative process. Together with London and Paris, New York has long been one of the centers of the drawings market, and an event like Master Drawings New York - despite the cold weather and often record snowfalls that seem to accompany the week! - only adds to that reputation.”
For the January, 2016 event, Stephen Ongpin plans a show of Italian drawings, “Renaissance to Futurism: Italian Drawings c.1500-1920” comprising about thirty drawings by artists working in Italy, ranging in date from the first years of the 16th century to the beginning of the 20th century, and will showcase drawings by a mixture of well-known artists and minor masters. He says, “Many of the drawings come from private collections, and have not been seen on the market for many years.” Among the earliest Italian drawings in the exhibition is a small but moving pen drawing of the Virgin and Child by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio of c.1500 and an important drawing by Perino del Vaga depicting a scene from the life of Julius Caesar, datable to the 1520’s.
Alfred Sisley (Paris 1839-1899 Moret-sur-Loing), The Cliffs at Langland Bay, Wales. Pastel. Signed and dated Sisley 97 in brown chalk at the lower left. 289 x 365 mm. (11 3/8 x 14 3/8 in.). Photo: Courtesy Stephen Ongpin Fine Art.
Thomas Gainsborough, R.A. (Sudbury 1727-1788 London), Travellers Passing Through a Village. Pencil, black chalk and watercolour, extensively heightened with white lead, on buff paper. 219 x 308 mm. (8 5/8 x 12 1/8 in.). Photo: Courtesy Stephen Ongpin Fine Art.
Returning dealer Mia Weiner of Old Master Drawings in Connecticut says, “The 10th anniversary of Master Drawings New York is a tremendous achievement. Dealers work hard to bring the best drawings they can muster and present them in an atmosphere conducive to their particular exhibition styles. That each show is unique in material as well as gallery design has been a delight for countless collectors and museum curators/directors.”
Weiner is bringing a group of stunning watercolors from the late 19th century including one of its greatest proponents, Giacinto Gigante, with two differing examples of his prowess; as well as two extraordinarily detailed watercolors by Luigi Bazzani, of Pompei.
Gaetano Gandolfi (San Matteo della Decima 1734 – 1802 Bologna), Studies of Two Angels for known altarpiece. Black chalk, watermark, 10 ½ x 6⅜ in (268 x 162mm). Photo: Courtesy Mia N Weiner.
Literature: Prisco Bagni, I Gandolfi, affreschi, dipinti, disegni, Bologna, 1992, no. 288, illustrated (recto and verso).
These lovely drawings of facing angels were preparatory and likely final studies for the angels that appear at the top of the composition on either side of L’Immacolata Concezione, painted by Gaetano in 1780 for the Church of Santa Maria Labarum Coeli in Bologna.
Julius Zielke (1826 – 1907 Rome), Landscape of the Coloseum with Ruins in the Foreground. Watercolor, signed; 7¾ x 12 ⅝ in (197 x 320 mm). Photo: Courtesy Mia N Weiner.
Dealer Monroe Warshaw is staging a show titled Drawn to Mythology with a collection that goes beyond the best known Greek and Roman examples, and dates from the 16th to 20th centuries.
Jan Cornelisz. Vermeyen (c.1500 – 1559 ), The Holy Trinity, pen and ink with gray wash, pricked for transfer, 314 x 280 mm 12 5/16 x 11 1/16 inches. Photo: Courtesy Monroe Warshaw.
Margot Gordon admits that, “Some visitors to our shows are surprised to see that not all our drawings date to the early centuries. We have several dealers who specialize in 20th and even 21st century works. In fact, our members display everything from medieval illuminations to preparatory studies by Raphael, to minimalist art and signed Picasso sketches. We particularly love the fact that curators, museum patrons, private collectors and the press all get to see the newest market offerings of each form at one time. It’s a model that works similarly well with our sister event in London.”
Riley-Smith says “With our format, dealers get to put their individual stamp on their own exhibitions and can entertain their private and museum clients as they like. We stage Private Previews for our clients the day before Master Drawings New York officially begins. This year that will be Friday, January 22, from 4 to 8pm.”
With such a wide range of options on offer, Gordon and Riley-Smith point out that drawings and watercolours represent a wonderful collecting opportunity, especially to those forming a new collection. Price points range from several thousand dollars to several million. The www.masterdrawingsinnewyork.com web site offers details on participating dealers and their specialties, and suggestions on how to work with a dealer to build a collection.
In previous years, noted experts on the subject have contributed to the brochure, including John Marciari, the head of the Department of Drawings and Prints at The Morgan Library & Museum in New York, artist Eric Fischl, William Griswold, former Director of The Morgan Library & Museum, New York; and Cara Dufour Denison, Curator Emerita Drawings and Prints at The Morgan. Cara Denison says, “Master Drawings New York is an indispensable event for lovers of drawings.”
The Introduction to the 2016 MASTER DRAWINGS NEW YORK brochure will be written by Colin Bailey, the recently appointed Director of The Morgan Library & Museum. Bailey is the former director of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, and previously spent 13 years at New York’s Frick Collection. Colin Bailey is a highly regarded specialist in 18th century French art and a recognized authority on the work of Pierre-August Renoir. He earned his Doctor of Philosophy in Art History from the University of Oxford.
Margot Gordon says, “We are thrilled to have Colin Bailey write the Introduction to our Tenth Anniversary Master Drawings New York brochure. His reputation as both a scholar and someone who has staged important and impressive exhibitions, gives him a unique perspective on the appeal of drawings. We truly welcome his insights and know that people attending our exhibitions will learn a great deal reading what he has to say.”
Agostino Carracci (Bologna 1557 — 1602 Parma), Head of a Young Man. Red chalk. Inscription in brown ink (lower left), Carracci ?. On an old mount with label, VP 51; verso: page of auction catalogue attached, 200 x 163 mm. (7 7/8 x 6 ½ in.). Executed circa 1585-90’. Photo: Courtesy Richard A. Berman Fine Art.
Domenico Piola (Genoa 1627 -1703), Angels with Doves. Brown ink over black chalk with brown washes. Inscribed lower left in black chalk “n Piola”, 8 x 9 ½ in (204 x 243 mm). Photo: Courtesy Christopher Bishop Fine Art.
Orazio Samacchini (Bologna 1532-1577), Adoration of the Magi. Brown ink highlighted in white over traces of black chalk on blue paper, brown ink framing lines. Inscribed lower center in brown pen “132”, 10 x 7¼ in (253 x 181 mm). Photo: Courtesy Christopher Bishop Fine Art.
Michael Wentzel (1792 Großschönau near Zittau – Dresden 1866), La Scuola di Virgilio, 1829. Watercolor over pen and ink with traces of pencil on laid paper; annotated in pencil at upper right La scola de Virgil 22 Junij 29.; in pen and ink nello Camerolle, watermark Canson 1826; 12 x 18 5/8 in (305 x 473 mm). Photo: Courtesy C. G. Boerner.
Provenance: Estate of the artist (according to a pencil inscription on verso); Dr. Franz Ulrich Apelt, Zittau; thence by descent.
Paula Modernsohn-Becker (1876 Dresden – Worpswede 1907), Landscape, ca. 1905-06. Charcoal on blue paper. Photo: Courtesy C. G. Boerner.
Provenance: Günter Busch (1917-2009), Bremen.
William Trost Richard (1833-1905), 26. Untitled (rocky cliff). Watercolor, Ht-9″x12″. Photo: Courtesy C. G. Boerner Dalva Brother Inc.
Noted Hymnal in Latin, Detail from f. 18, Virgin Mary, crowned, historiated initial, R[ecordare virgo]. Illuminated manuscript on parchment. Germany (c. 1460-80), Nonnenarbeiten (Nuns’ work). Photo: Courtesy Les Enluminures.
Jerome, Letter LIV to Furia, St Jerome Giving his Epistle to a Messenger and the Messenger Handing it to Furia. In French, illuminated manuscript on parchment, France, likely Bourges, c. 1500-1510, 1 full-page miniature by the Master of Spencer 6 (fl. c. 1490-1510). Photo: Courtesy Les Enluminures.
Scott Kelley (b. 1963), ‘Gluskap and the Deer’, 2014. Watercolor on paper. Signed, dated, and titled, 18 x 24 in (45.7 x 610 mm). Photo: Courtesy Sigrid Freundorfer Fine Art, LLC.
Scott Kelley (b. 1963), ‘Gluskap and the Bear’, 2014. Watercolor on paper. Signed, dated, and titled, 34 x 48 in (864 x 1220 mm). Photo: Courtesy Sigrid Freundorfer Fine Art, LLC.
Italian School (Naples) – around 1800, Veduta del Sepolcro della Sacerdotessa Mammia a Pompejano. Gouache on natural vellum, 5½ x 19¼ in (142 x 485 mm). Photo: Courtesy Pia Gallo.
Salvator Rosa (Arenella/Naples 1615-1673 Rome), Study for the figure of Scylla: Woman posing on a rock, lifting her dress above her waist. Pen in light brown ink with wash in dark and light grey, mounted on album paper, Mahoney 38.7; 6½ x 4¼ in (165 x 108 mm). Photo: Courtesy Pia Gallo.
Provenance: Queen Christina of Sweden; Prince Livio Odescalchi.
The figure of Scylla is a study for the painting Glaucus and Scylla, Musee des Beaux Arts, Brussels.
This is also the same figure which appears in the etching of 1661 (Bartsch 20, Wallace 101)
Frans Masereel (1889-1972), L’homme sur la ville. Pen and ink on wove paper, 1921. Signed and dated FM / 1921; 28⅞ x 21 in (733 x 531 mm). Photo: Courtesy Eric Gillis Fine Art.
Provenance: C. & M. Verbaet, Antwerp
George Seurat (1859-1891), Le Liseur. Black conte crayon on paper, laid down on board, circa 1881-82; 12¼ x 8⅝ in (310 x 219 mm). Photo: Courtesy Eric Gillis Fine Art.
Literature: C.M. de Hauke, Seurat et son oeuvre, Paris, 1961, vol. TI, p. 74, no. 458 (ill., p. 75)
Provenance: Paul Signac, Paris; Galerie Bernheim-Jeune et Cie., Paris ; Galerie de l’Elysée, Paris ; M. Renauld, Paris; Private collection, Switzerland; by descent from the above to the present owner, circa 1958; Christie’s New York, November 07, 2007; Private collection, United Kingdom.
Edward Dodwell, F.S.A. (1767-1832), The Phlegraean Fields (Campi Flegrei), Naples. Pencil and watercolour, 24¼ x 39 in (615 x 1014 mm). Photo: Courtesy Martyn Gregory.
Fernand Léger (1881-1955), Etude pour “La Gare”, 1918. Pencil on paper, 9½ x 12 ⅜ in (241 x 314 mm). Photo: Courtesy Leonard Hutton Galleries.
Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830), The Wellesley-Pole Sisters. Signed and dated ‘T Lawrence 1814’ twice. Pencil, black and red chalk and pink wash on paper, 480 x 384 mm (18⅞ x 15⅛ in). Photo: Courtesy Lowell Libson Ltd
Joseph Mallord William Turner, RA (1775-1851), A distant view over Chambery, from the north, with storm clouds, 1836. Watercolour, 9¾ x 10¾ in (248 x 273 mm). Photo: Courtesy Lowell Libson Ltd
Luigi PREMAZZI (1814-1891) called Ludwig Ossipovich Premazzi, The Monastery of St. George, Crimea. Watercolour, 14 1/4 x 20 3/8 inches (363 x 517 mm). Signed; numbered and inscribed verso. Photo: Courtesy James Mackinnon.
Edward Lear (1812-1888), Assiout on the Nile. Pen, ink and watercolour, 5 1/2 x 12 1/2 inches (140 x 317 mm). Photo: Courtesy James Mackinnon.
Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889-1943), BANDES, CERCLES ET LIGNES, 1932. Distemper over pencil on paper, 10¼ x 13¾ in (260 x 350 mm). Signed on verso: SH Taeuber-Arp. Estate stamp on artist’s mount. Photo: Courtesy Barbara Mathes Gallery.
Jacobus van Looy (1855-1930), A girl knitting, seated in a chair. Pastel on paper, 470 by 325 mm. Signed with initials ‘J.v.L.’. Photo: Courtesy Mireille Mosler Ltd.
Pieter Holsteyn II (1614-1673), A study of an Auricula. Black lead, pen and grey ink, watercolour, 315 by 195 mm. Photo: Courtesy Mireille Mosler Ltd.
Walter Gay (1856–1937), Library at Château du Bréau. Watercolor on board. Signed Walter Gay, 18 x 15 in – 457 x 381 mm. Photo: Courtesy Mark Murray Fine Paintings.
Pierre Bonnard (French, 1867-1947), Study for “Conversation”. Verso: Study of Standing Man and Woman Singing, c. 1893. Pencil and pen and ink on paper, 6 1/8 × 8 inches (15.5 × 20.3 cm). Estate stamp lower right on recto and verso. Photo: Courtesy Jill Newhouse Gallery.
Provenance: Purchased from Wildenstein in 1998; by descent in the family
Charles Francois Daubigny, Le Bateau Atelier, The Studio on the Boat. Pen and ink on papier calque, 4 1/2 x 6 3/8 inches (11.4 x 16.3 cm). Photo: Courtesy Jill Newhouse Gallery.
Aurelio Luini (1530 – 1593), Studies of God the Father. Black chalk, pen and brown ink. 5 x 69/16 in. (124 x 167 mm.). Photo: Courtesy Nissman, Abromson Ltd.
Uberto Bonetti (1909 – 1993), Aerial View of San Marino. Mixed media, 20¼ x 10¼ in (515 x 260 mm.). Photo: Courtesy Nissman, Abromson Ltd.
Hendrick de Clerck (Brussels 1570- 1629), Lamentation. Pen and brown ink over black chalk, signed by the artist with a monogram, 7 x 11 in. (193 x 290 mm. Photo: Courtesy Laura Pecheur.
Cornelis Schut (Antwerp 1597 – Borgerhout 1655), The abduction of Europa. Pen and brown ink over black chalk. Mise aux carreaux, 7 x 10 in. (191 x 270 mm). Photo: Courtesy Laura Pecheur.
Samuel Palmer (1805-1881), In the Chequered Shade. Signed lower right: S. PALMER/1861. Watercolour over pencil heightened with bodycolour and gum arabic, 20.2 by 43.2 cm., 8 by 17 in. Photo: Courtesy Guy Peppiatt Fine Art Ltd.
Provenance: With Walker’s Galleries, 11 New Bond St, London, 1952; Acquired by a private collector; By descent until 2010
Literature: Raymond Lister, Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of Samuel Palmer, 1988, p.189, no.586 as untraced
Exhibited: London, Society of Painters in Water-colours, 1861, no.133; London, Walker’s Galleries, 48th Annual Exhibition of Early English Water-Colours, 30th June 1952, no.85, as `Noon – Resting Time’
John Downman, A.R.A. (1750-1824), The Determined Widow Mrs Croad and her only Daughter, full-length, a view of the sea at Plymouth beyond. Signed lower right: Jo Downman/1806. Watercolour and coloured chalks over pencil heightened with touches of bodycolour, in its original carved Maratta frame, 34¾ x 26 in. (882 x 659 mm.). Photo: Courtesy Guy Peppiatt Fine Art Ltd.
An album of 70 uncensored 16th century drawings after Michelangelo’s Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel. The original figures depict genitalia and other “lewd” elements which were later censored and painted over at the Church’s direction. These were generally unknown until the restoration of the work in 1980-84. They are bound in 18th century calf and were in the collection of Count Leopold Cicognara (1767-1834), the leading Italian art historian of his time. Photo: Courtesy PRPH Rare Books.
Vincenzo Gemito (Naples 1852 – 1929), Portrait of a young girl. Charcoal, black tempera and white tempera on paper. Signed and dated bottom right corner, in charcoal, Gemito 1925 Napoli., 465 x 323 mm. (18¼ x 12¾ in.). Photo: Courtesy Mattia & Maria Novella Romano.
Agostino Tassi (Ponzano Romano 1580 – 1644 Roma), Apollo e Daphne. Pen and watercoloured ink on laid paper. 158 x 210 mm. (6¼ x 8¼ in.). Bears number in ink 21.. Photo: Courtesy Mattia & Maria Novella Romano.
Fernand Léger (1881-1955), Les Constructeurs – The Builders,: 1950. Gouache and pencil on paper mounted on cardboard by the artist, squared for transfer, 368 x 454 mm. 14 1/2 x 18 in. Signed in pencil “F.L 50” middle right. Titled and signed in brush verso, Souvenir de [?] “Constructeurs” Amigo F. Leger. Photo: Courtesy David Tunick Inc.
Provenance: Mme. Fabry; 1971 (?) to
Galerie Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland; 1972 (?) to
Harold Reed, New York; 1973 to
Weintraub Gallery, New York; 1980 to
Private collection, New York;
And by descent
Exhibited: Maison de la Pensée Française, Paris, 1951 (?);
Galerie Beyeler, Basel, April-October, 1969, no. 53;
Réunion des Musées Nationaux, “Fernand Léger –
Grand Palais” 16 October 1971 to 10 January 1972, no. 177
Literature: Catalogue, Galerie Beyeler exhibition above, 1969, no. 53;
New edition of same with text by Blaise Cendrars,
André Maurois, introduction by René Jullian;
Fernand Léger, Grand Palais, 1971, cat. no. 177
Thomas Jones (1742-1803), Landscape with Sunrise over the Bay of Pozzuoli, 1780’s. Oil on paper mounted on canvas, 219 x 374 mm. 8 5/8 x 14 3/4 in. Photo: Courtesy David Tunick Inc.
Provenance: London trade, 2006;
Christie’s London, 6 June 2007, lot 171; to
Haboldt & Co., Paris; 2008 to
Private collection, U.S.A.; to
Corporate collection, U.S.A., until 2014
Exhibited: TEFAF/Maastricht, March 2008
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Gerda mit Tänzer, 1912, watercolour and pencil on paper, around, 18.14 x 23.26 inches. Photo: Courtesy Van Doren Waxter in collaboration with Beck & Eggeling
Emil Nolde, Meer (also titled: Welle), 1926, colored lithograph on paper, 23.6 x 31.49 in. Photo: Courtesy Van Doren Waxter in collaboration with Beck & Eggeling.