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EDINBURGH.- From drawings by Leonardo da Vinci and a gardening manual owned by Henry VIII, to a metre-high clock in the form of a vase of flowers, a new exhibition exploring the garden in art opened in Edinburgh at The Queen's Gallery, Palace of Holyroodhouse. 

Painting Paradise: The Art of the Garden brings together over 75 paintings, drawings, books, and decorative arts from theRoyal Collection, a number of which have not been exhibited in Scotland before. From spectacular images of epic royal landscapes to jewel-like manuscripts and delicate botanical studies, it includes works by masters such as Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt van Rijn. 

Shown in Scotland for the first time, a copy of the Ruralia Commoda, the world's first gardening manual, acquired by Henry VIII after the death in 1543 of its previous owner, Richard Rawson, the King's chaplain and advisor on his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. It was written in Latin between 1304 and 1309 by Petrus de Crescentiis, a wealthy lawyer from Bologna in Italy, and was the only publication of its kind during Henry VIII's reign. 

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Petrus de Crescentiis (c. 1230–35–c. 1320), Ruralia Commoda,  c.1490-5. With woodblock illustrations and marginal annotations throughout, 29 cm x 42.5 cm (open) (book measurement (conservation)), RCIN 1057436Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

Also displayed for the first time in Scotland is a book of verse by the Edinburgh-born artist Esther Inglis, illustrated with watercolour paintings of native species of flower, such as the thistle and buttercup. It was one of four works created by Inglis for the young Henry, Prince of Wales (the eldest son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, who was brought up in Edinburgh) and is believed to have been presented as a New Year's gift in 1607.  

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Esther Inglis (1571-1624), Cinquante octonaires sur la va [sic] vanite et inconstance du monde : dediez à Monsieur le Prince pour ses estrennes de l'an 1607 / escrit et illumine par moy Esther Inglis., 1607, 13.0 x 16.5 cm (book measurement (inventory)), RCIN 1047001Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

A highlight of the exhibition is the magnificent Sunflower Clock, c.1752, produced in the 18th century by the Vincennes porcelain factory. The clock is made up of delicate porcelain flowers that surround a dial made from brass shavings to imitate the centre of a sunflower, a symbol of the Sun King, Louis XIV. A Sèvres porcelain pot-pourri gondole, 1757–8, for growing bulbs, acquired by George IV when Prince of Wales, was once displayed in the dining room of Carlton House, the Prince's London residence.  

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Vincennes porcelain factory (1738-56). The Sunflower clock, c. 1752. Soft-paste porcelain, gilding, green-lacquered brass wire (for the stems), gilt bronze mounts; 105.4 x 66.7 x 54.0 cm (whole object); RCIN 30240Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Sèvres Porcelain Factory, Pot-pourri gondole, 1757–58. Soft-paste porcelain, graduated pink ground, gilded decoration and gilt bronze, RCIN 36099. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016 

Painting Paradise includes works on paper that chart the rise of botanical art. Leonardo da Vinci's pen-and-ink drawing of Job's tears, c.1510, shows the artist's desire to understand the structure and growth of plants as part of his wider interest in examining the scientific forces underpinning the whole of nature. Six delicate works by Alexander Marshal, c.1650-82, represent the phenomenon of the florilegium, a celebration of the plants in a particular collection or garden. Marshal's work is the only surviving painted florilegium from 17th-century England.  

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Leonardo da Vinci (Vinci 1452-Amboise 1519), Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi), c.1510. Black chalk and pen and ink, 21.2 x 23.0 cm (sheet of paper), RCIN 912429. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Leonardo da Vinci (Vinci 1452-Amboise 1519), The seed-heads of two rushes (Scirpus lacustris and Cyperus sp.), with notes, c.1510. Pen and ink, 19.5 x 14.5 cm, RCIN 912427Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Alexander Marshal (c. 1620-82), A tulip with common milkwort and white buttercup, c.1650 – 82. Watercolour and bodycolour, 45.9 x 33.0 cm, RCIN 924303. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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 Alexander Marshal (c. 1620-82), Spiderwort, a snail, the ‘Ragatte rose’ and two forms of love-in-a-mist, c.1650 – 82. Watercolour and bodycolour, 45.9 x 33.0 cm, RCIN 924344. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Alexander Marshal (c. 1620-82), Narcissus and Poet’s Narcissus, Crown Imperial and Auricula, c.1650 – 82. Watercolour and bodycolour, 45.7 x 32.9 cm, RCIN 924280Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Alexander Marshal (c. 1620-82), Auriculas, c.1650 – 82. Watercolour and bodycolour, 45.9 x 33.0 cm, RCIN 924281Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Alexander Marshal (c. 1620-82), Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) with the sweet briar (Rosa rubiginosa L.) , c.1680. Watercolour and bodycolour, 45.9 x 33.2 cm (sheet of paper), RCIN 924313Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Alexander Marshal (c. 1620-82), Tulips, c.1650-82. Watercolour and bodycolour, 45.7 x 33.2 cm (sheet of paper), RCIN 924309Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

In the Victorian period, the garden was often used as the backdrop for portraits of the Royal Family. A painting by Franz Xaver Winterhalter from 1850 shows Queen Victoria nursing her third son, Prince Arthur, on the Pavilion Terrace at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. The composition echoes the traditional image of the Madonna and Child in a garden, while the setting reflects the latest fashions in horticulture. It includes an Agave americana, a succulent from Mexico, which was among the many rare species collected by botanists and introduced into Victorian domestic gardens. 

 

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Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1805-73), Queen Victoria with Prince Arthur. Signed and dated 1850. Oil on canvas, 59.5 x 75.1 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 405963Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

Also explored in the exhibition is the theme of the 'sacred garden'. Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, 1615, is one of a series of 'Paradise landscapes' by the Flemish artist Jan Brueghel the Elder. The exquisite painting by Rembrandt van Rijn of Christ and St Mary Magdalene at the Tomb, 1638, depicts the New Testament story of Mary Magdalene mistaking the resurrected Christ for a gardener.

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Jan Brueghel the Elder (Brussels 1568-Antwerp 1625), Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, 1615. Oil on copper, RCIN 405512. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606-Amsterdam 1669), Christ and St Mary Magdalen at the Tomb. Signed and dated 1638. Oil on panel, 61.0 x 49.5 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 404816Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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After Master of Hoogstraten (early 16th century), The Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine and Barbara, c. 1520-30. Oil on panel, 51.3 x 38.1 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 407812. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Lodewijk Toeput (c. 1550-c. 1605), Pleasure Garden with a Maze, c. 1579-1584. Oil on canvas, 147.4 x 200.0 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 402610Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Attributed to Francesco Colonna (1432-33-c. 1527), Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, 1499, 8vo : π4 a-y8 z10 A-E8 F4 (C1 signed E1) [242 leaves]; RCIN 1057947Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Franciabigio (Florence 1484-1525), Portrait of Jacopo Cennini dated MDXXIII on left hand page of the ledger. Oil on panel, 65.4 x 49.6 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 405766Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016

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Isaac Oliver (c. 1565-1617), A Young Man Seated Under a Tree , c.1590-1595. Watercolour on vellum laid on card, 12.4 x 8.9 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 420639Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Maria van Oosterwyck (Noorddorp 1630-Uitdam 1693), Still Life with Flowers, Insects and a Shell. Signed and dated 1689. Oil on panel, 47.5 x 36.9 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 405625Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Maria van Oosterwyck (Noorddorp 1630-Uitdam 1693), Still Life with Flowers and Butterflies. Signed and dated 1686. Oil on panel, 47.4 x 36.95 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 405626. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Attributed to Adriaen van Diest (c.1655-1704), Buckingham House, c. 1703-10. Oil on canvas, 85.1 x 110.4 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 404350Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Jakob Bogdani (c. 1660-1720), Flowers in a Vase, c.1688-1710. Oil on canvas, 173.0 x 83.7 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 402811Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Jakob Bogdani (c. 1660-1720), Flowers in a Vase, c.1688-1710. Oil on canvas, 173.4 x 84.1 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 402807Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Attributed to Jean-Baptiste Martin (1659-1735), A Stag Hunt at Versailles, c. 1700. Oil on canvas, 120.0 x 180.4 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 406958. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Leonard Knyff (1650-1722), A View of Hampton Court, c. 1702-14. Oil on canvas, 153.1 x 216.3 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 404760. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Studio of Marco Ricci (Belluno 1676-Venice 1730), A View of the Cascade, Bushy Park Water Gardens, c.1715. Oil on canvas, 150.4 x 248.0 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 402592Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Attributed to British School, 18th century, Windsor Castle, c. 1710. Oil on canvas, 68.2 x 83.0 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 400926Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Adriaen Kocks (d. 1701), Tulip vase, c.1694. Tin-glazed earthenware, 147.2 cm (whole object), RCIN 1085. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Thomas Tompion (bapt. 1639 d.1713), Sundial, c. 1699. Copper alloy, 31.5 x 52.2 cm (whole object), RCIN 95190Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Thomas Tompion (bapt. 1639 d.1713), Sundial, c. 1699. Copper alloy, 41.0 x 52.2 cm (whole object), RCIN 11959Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Hubert Le Sueur (c. 1580-1658), Boy with a thorn in his foot, 'Spinario', 1636-37. Bronze, 78.0 x 53.0 x 60.0 cm (whole object) | RCIN 26319Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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John Nost II (d. 1729), Garden urn, c.1701, 75.0 x 66.0 cm (maximum), RCIN 95183. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Sutton Nicholls (active 1680-1740), An exact prospect of Hampton Court, c.1700. Etching, RCIN 702878. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Jakob Bogdani (c. 1660-1720), Birds in a Landscape, c.1688-1710. Oil on canvas, RCIN 402812 Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Stefano della Bella (1610-1664), Romae in Hortis Medicaeis vas marmoreum eximium, dated 1656. Etching, RCIN 806143Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Sèvres porcelain factory. A Pair of Vases and Covers (vase ferré), c. 1768. Soft-paste porcelain, green ground, gilded decoration and gilt bronze, RCIN 2294Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Sèvres porcelain factory. Vase à feuilles de myrte, c. 1775-80. Soft-paste porcelain, green ground, gilded decoration and gilt bronze, RCIN 36072. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Sèvres porcelain factory. Pot-pourri fontaine or pot-pourri à dauphins, c. 1760. Soft-paste porcelain, bleu lapis and apple green ground, gilded decoration and gilt bronze, RCIN 36074Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Chelsea Porcelain Works (London) (c. 1745-69), Oval Dish, c. 1755. Soft-paste porcelain, 3.0 x 28.6 x 22.6 cm (whole object), RCIN 102343. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Chelsea Porcelain Works (London) (c. 1745-69), Circular Plate, c. 1755. Soft-paste porcelain, 4.5 x 36.0 x 36.0 cm (whole object), RCIN 100711Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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The orange blossom parure, 1846. Gold, porcelain, enamel, velvet, RCIN 65305Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016. 

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Gobelins Tapestry Factory. Les Portières des Dieux: Venus, c.1768. Woven silk and wool tapestry, 335.28 x 287.0 cm (whole object), RCIN 45255Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88), Henry, Duke of Cumberland with Anne, Duchess of Cumberland, and Lady Elizabeth Luttrell, c.1785-8.Oil on canvas, 163.5 x 124.5 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 400675Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Attributed to Robert Campbell (active 1754-93), A Pair of Armchairs, c.1780. Gilded beechwood, upholstered in embroidered silk and wool, 153.0 x 74.0 x 83.0 cm (whole object), RCIN 1141Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Pater (1695-1736), Fête Champêtre, c.1728-36. Oil on canvas, 50.6 x 60.2 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 400671. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Pater (1695-1736), Fête Champêtre with a Flute Player, c.1720-36. Oil on canvas, 50.5 x 60.5cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 400673Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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William Hogarth (1697-1764), The family of George II, c. 1731-2. Oil on canvas, 63.8 x 76.4 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 401358. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Johan Jacob Schalch (1723-89), The Gardens at Kew, 1759. Oil on canvas, 75.6 x 102.1 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 403517Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Attributed to British School, 18th century, St James's Park and the Mall, c. 1745. Oil on canvas, 103.5 x 138.5 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 405954. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-73), Windsor Castle in modern times; Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and Victoria, Princess Royal, 1841-43. Oil on canvas, 113.4 x 144.3 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 406903Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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John Tinney (c. 1729-1761), An oblique View of the East Front of Hampton Court, with part of the Garden. Etching, 34.5 x 49.5 cm (platemark), RCIN 702885. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Laurits Regner Tuxen (1853-1927), The Garden Party at Buckingham Palace, 28 June 1897. Dated 1897-1900. Oil on canvas, 167.7 x 228.7 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 405286Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Henry Phillips (1779-1840), Floral emblems, or, A Guide to the language of flowers / by Henry Phillips, 1831, RCIN 1164011. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Henri Fantin-Latour (1838-1904), Azelea and Pansies, Signed and dated 1881. Oil on canvas, 55.6 x 70.2 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external), RCIN 409075. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.

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Francis Bacon, 1st Baron Verulam & Viscount St Albans (1561-1626), Of gardens : an essay / by Francis Bacon, 1904?, 27.0 x 1.5 cm (book in box), RCIN 1047540Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016.