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Kneeling Archer (detail), Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 491⁄16 in. (122 cm). Excavated in 1977, pit no. 2, mausoleum complex of Qin Shihuangdi (d. 210 B.C.), Lintong, Shaanxi Province. Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong 

When you see your face reflected here, this mirror will dispel all harms and woes. May the Central Kingdom [China] be peaceful and secure, and prosper for generations and generations to come, by following the great law that governs all.”—excerpt from an inscription written on the back of a mirror on view in the exhibition

NEW YORKA major international loan exhibition featuring more than 160 ancient Chinese works of art—including renowned terracotta army warriors—will go on view at The Metropolitan Museum of Art beginning April 3. Synthesizing new in-depth research and archaeological discoveries of the last 50 years, the landmark exhibition Age of Empires: Chinese Art of the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 B.C.– A.D. 220) will explore the unprecedented role of art in creating a new and lasting Chinese cultural identity. The works in the exhibition—extremely rare ceramics, metalwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, calligraphy, and architectural models—are drawn exclusively from 32 museums and archaeological institutions in the People’s Republic of China, and a majority of the works have never before been seen in the West. The exhibition will also examine ancient China’s relationship with the outside world.

The exhibition is made possible by China Merchants Bank. 

Additional support is provided by the Joseph Hotung Fund, the Ing Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, Agnes Hsu-Tang and Oscar L. Tang in honor of Zhixin Jason Sun, the E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Foundation, the Estate of Brooke Astor, K11 Art Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Arts. 

Thomas P. Campbell, Director of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, stated: “It is a great pleasure for us to present this magnificent assemblage of treasures from China. A project of such scale and scope could not be realized without the strong support and cooperation of lending organizations and their staffs. As the largest and most important display of Chinese art to be held in the United States in 2017, the exhibition establishes a new milestone in U.S.-China cultural exchange.”

This exhibition is the culmination of our long history of collaboration with China that began in 1980,” said Maxwell, K. Hearn, Douglas Dillon Chairman of The Met’s Department of Asian Art. “We thank especially China’s State Council, Ministry of Culture and State Administration of Cultural Heritage, as well as both the U. S. Department of State and China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, for their steadfast support and guidance.”

Jason Sun, Brooke Russell Astor Curator of Chinese Art in The Met’s Department of Asian Art, stated: “The Han Empire represents the ‘classical’ era of Chinese civilization, coinciding in importance and in time with Greco-Roman civilization in the West. Like the Roman Empire, the Han state brought together people of diverse backgrounds under a centralized government that fostered a new ‘Chinese’ identity. Even today, most Chinese refer to themselves as the ‘Han people’—the single largest ethnic group in the world. Thanks to new scholarship as well as the extraordinary artifacts unearthed by archaeologists in the past 50 years, this exhibition offers many new art-historical, cultural, and political insights. I’m delighted that Age of Empires can introduce this largely unknown era of Chinese civilization to our global audience.” 

About the Qin and Han Dynasties
The unification of China by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.) and the centuries-long Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 220) fundamentally reshaped art and culture and established political paradigms and intellectual institutions that guided dynastic rulership for the next 2,000 years. They have continued to be influential to the present day.

Introducing an era of political stability and prosperity across an area much larger than that of the Roman Empire at its peak, the Han dynasty bound together its empire through a network of roads and a centralized administrative system that promulgated a unified legal code and standardized currency, weights and measures, and, most importantly, a consistent written language. These changes—first introduced under the Qin—fostered a “golden age” in art, architecture, technology, and literature while introducing lasting changes to society, the economy, religion, and political thought.

Works in the Exhibition 

Section 1: Qin Dynasty
Transformational advances in art and culture accomplished during the Qin and Han dynasties are vividly conveyed throughout the exhibition. Most remarkable is the sudden appearance of monumental figural art as revealed by excavations at the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor (d. 210 B.C.), which unearthed a life-size army of 7,000 terracotta warriors.

The exhibition opens with a spectacular group of these warriors, some of the real weapons with which they were armed, and replicas of two half-life-size bronze chariot teams that together demonstrate the dynasty’s formidable military power. Even more striking is the recently discovered semi-nude performer whose anatomical accuracy, unprecedented in Chinese art, brings to mind Greco-Roman sculpture first introduced into Asia by Alexander the Great. 

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Kneeling Archer, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 491⁄16 in. (122 cm). Excavated in 1977, pit no. 2, mausoleum complex of Qin Shihuangdi (d. 210 B.C.), Lintong, Shaanxi ProvincePhoto: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Chariot Model (Modern Replica after Qin Originals), Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Bronze with pigments, H. 59 in. (150 cm), Collection of Emperor Qinshihuang's Mausoleum Site MuseumPhoto: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Chariot Model (Modern Replica after Qin Originals), Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Bronze with pigments, H. 27 1/2 in. (69.9 cm), Collection of Emperor Qinshihuang's Mausoleum Site MuseumPhoto: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Unarmored General, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 77 15/16 in. (198 cm). Excavated from Pit no. 1 of Qin Mausoleum, Lintong, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 1978Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Standing Archer, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 70 in. (177.8 cm)Excavated from Pit 1 of the Qin Mausoleum, Lintong, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 1974Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Horse, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 66 in. (167.6 cm)Excavated from Pit 1 of Qin Mausoleum, Lintong, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 1977Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Civil Official, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 83 5/8 in. (212.4 cm)Excavated from Pit K0006 of Qin Mausoleum, Lintong, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 2000Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Armored Infantryman, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 78 1/8 in. (298.4 cm)Excavated from Pit no. 1 of Qin Mausoleum, Lintong, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 1978Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Model Armor, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Limestone, H. 39 in. (99 cm)Excavated from the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin, 1999Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Model Helmet, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Limestone, H. 14 15/16 in. (38 cm)Excavated from Pit K9801 at the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin, 1998Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Inscriptions from the Stele of Mount Yi (front). Date of stele: Song dynasty (960–1279). Calligraphy after Xu Xuan (916–991). Ink on paper, 60 x 31¼ in. (152.4 x 79.4 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Seymour and Rogers Fund, 1977 (1977.375.7a, b). Photo: Courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Strongman, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Earthenware, H. 61 3/4 in. (156.8 cm); W. at shoulders 29 1/2 in. (74.9 cm); W. at waist 20 1/2 in. (52.2 cm); Wt. 456.4 lb. (207 kg). Photo: Courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Goose, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Bronze, H. 11 7/16 in. (29 cm); W. 9 7/16 in. (24 cm); L. 21 5/8 in. (55 cm); Wt. 52.9 lb. (24 kg). Excavated from Pit K0007 of the Qin Mausoleum, Shaanxi, 2000Photo: Courtesy Qin Shihuangdi Mausoleum Site Museum, Lintong

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Kneeling Warrior, China or Central Asia, 5th–3rd century BC. Bronze, H. 15 3/4 in. (40 cm); W. 5 1/8 in. (13 cm); D. 6 7/8 in. (17.5 cm). Excavated from tomb at 71st League, Xinyuan County, Xinjiang, 1983Photo: Courtesy Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum

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Pair of Finials in the Shape of Mythical Beasts, Qin dynasty (221–206 B.C.). Gilt bronze inlaid with glass, each 10⅝ x 3½ x 1⅛ in. (27 x 9 x 3 cm). Unearthed in 1972, the Second Brick Factory site, northern suburb of Xi’an, Shaanxi Province. Photo: Courtesy Xi’an Museum

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Stem Cup, Qin (221–206 B.C.)–Western Han (206 B.C.–A.D. 9) dynasty. Jade (nephrite), H. 5 11/16 in. (14.5 cm). Excavated from the site of Epang Palace, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 1976. Photo: Courtesy Xi’an Museum

Section 2: Han Dynasty, Part 1
The Han dynasty’s consolidation of the Qin empire and the extraordinary era of prosperity that this ushered in is the focus of the exhibition’s second section. With a vast territory to rule, Han emperors maintained a centralized administration and shared authority with relatives and former allies. The power and wealth enjoyed by the Han elite are vividly conveyed by an array of ornate ritual vessels, sets of musical instruments, refined lacquerware, and colorful silk textiles. A striking example of the Han love of spectacle and exoticism is conveyed by a meticulously rendered sculpture of a rhinoceros that was clearly modeled on a living animal offered as tribute for the royal menagerie.

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Head Ornament, Warring States period (475–221 B.C.). Gold, turquoise, and carnelian, Diam. ⅛–¼ in. (0.3–0.6 cm). Excavated in 2008–9, tomb no. 16, Majiayuan, Zhangjiachuan, Gansu Province. Photo: Courtesy Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Lanzhou

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Head of Warrior, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Earthenware with pigment. H. 4 3/4 in. (12.1 cm); W. 2 5/8 in. (6.7 cm); W. 3 1/4 in. (8.3 cm). Excavated from site of Yangling, Shaanxi, 1992.  Photo: Courtesy Museum of Yangling Mausoleum

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Horise with Groom, Eastern Han dynasty (25–220). Bronze. Horse: H. 53 1/8 in. (135 cm); W. 19 11/16 in. (50 cm); L. 43 5/16 in. (110 cm); approx. Wt. 56.7 lb. (25.7 kg) Groom: H. 26 3/4 in. (68 cm); W. 5 1/8 in. (13 cm); L. 11 13/16 in. (30 cm); approx. Wt. 11 lb. (5 kg)). Excavated from Han tomb no. 2 at Hejiashan, Mianyang, Sichuan, 1990.  Photo: Courtesy Mianyang Museum

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Six Niuzhong Bells, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9), 1st century B.C. Parcel-gilt bronze, H. in descending order: 9⅝ in. (24.4 cm); 9 in. (23 cm); 8¼ in. (21 cm); 7⅞ in. (20 cm); 7⅜ in. (18.6 cm); 6½ in. (16.5 cm). Excavated in 2015, tomb of the marquis of Haihun (Liu He, d. 59 B.C.), Nanchang, Jiangxi Province. Photo: Courtesy Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang

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Winged Cup (Erbei), Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9), 2nd century B.C. Lacquer over wood, H. 1 3/4 in. (4.4 cm); W. 5 1/16 in. (12.8 cm): L. 6 5/8 in. (16.9 cm). Excavated from M1 at Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan, 1972Photo: Courtesy Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha

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Tripod Food Container (Ding) with Cloud Pattern, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9), 2nd century B.C. Lacquer over wood, H. 10⅛ in. (25.6 cm), Diam. of mouth 8⅜ in. (21.2 cm). Excavated in 1972, tomb no. 1 (Lady Dai, d. ca. 168 B.C.), Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan Province. Photo: Courtesy Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha

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Lamp in the Shape of a RamWestern Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Gilt bronze, H. 8 9/16 in. (21.8 cm); W. 4 3/8 in. (11.1 cm); L. 10 13/16 in. (27.4 cm). Excavated from Fengxiang, Shaanxi, 1982Photo: Courtesy Xi'an Museum

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Wine Container (Zhong) with Interlacing Dragons, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Bronze with silver and gold parcel gilding, H. 23 7/16 in. (59.5 cm); Diam. 14 9/16 in. (37 cm); Wt. 35.8 lb. (16.3 kg). Excavated from the Han tomb no.1 at Mancheng, Hebei, 1968Photo: Courtesy Hebei Provincial Museum

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Pillow in the Shape of a Twin-Headed Bird, Eastern Han dynasty (25–220). Woven silk jin (warp-faced compound plain weave), two amber beads, H. 6 in.. (15.2 cm): W. 19 in. (48.3 cm): D. 3 3/4 in. (9.5 cm). Excavated from Tomb no.1 at site of Niya, Minfeng County, Xinjiang, 1959Photo: Courtesy Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum

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Rhinoceros, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9), 2nd century B.C. Gilt bronze, rhinoceros 7¾ x 3¼ x 3? in. (19.8 x 8.4 x 9.8 cm) Excavated in 2010, tomb no. 1 (Liu Fei, prince of Jiangdu, d. 129 B.C.), Dayunshan, Xuyi, Jiangsu Province. Photo: Courtesy Nanjing Museum

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DogEastern Han dynasty (25–220). Earthenware, H. 16 3/4 in. (42.5 cm); W. 13 in. (33 cm); L. 19 11/16 in. (50 cm). Excavated in Nanyang, Henan, 1987. Photo: Courtesy Henan Museum

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Bear, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Jade, H. 2 5/8 in. (6.6 cm); W. 3 1/4 in. (8.3 cm); L. 8 in. (20.3 cm). Excavated from Prince Chu’s tomb at Beidongshan, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 1986. Photo: Courtesy Xuzhou City Museum

Believing that the soul could continue to enjoy in the afterlife all of the pleasures of the living, Han elite went to extraordinary lengths to insure the well-being of their souls, creating tombs that resembled underground palaces. The exhibition features a burial suit for a Han princess made of more than 2,000 jade pieces (jade was believed to purify and preserve the body from corruption). This section also includes many precious objects that were used to furnish the tombs as well as an array of tomb figurines that took the place of living attendants to serve the deceased in perpetuity. A second group of terracotta and wooden warriors—smaller in size than the Qin figures but of equal artistic significance—underscores the growing importance of cavalry for combating nomadic tribes as well as projecting power into Central Asia. The prime reason for the expeditions was to secure supplies of West Asian “heavenly horses,” exemplified here by a large stallion cast in bronze. 

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Burial Suit of Dou Wan, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Jade (nephrite) with gold wire, L. 67¾ in. (172 cm). Excavated in 1968, tomb no. 2 (Dou Wan), Mancheng, Hebei Province. Photo: Courtesy Hebei Provincial Museum, Shijiazhuang

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Coffin Handle, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Bronze with gilding and silvering, H. 4 13/16 in. (12.2 cm); W. 2 7/8 in. (7.3 cm). Excavated from Han tomb no.1 at Mancheng, Hebei, 1968Photo: Courtesy Hebei Provincial Museum, Shijiazhuang

Section 3: Han Dynasty, Part 2
The final section of the exhibition will reveal the diversity of art and material culture within the varied regions of the empire around the first century, especially in those border areas that were most directly influenced by the objects and people arriving from the rest of Asia and Europe.

The highlights of this section—a monumental stone sculpture of a crouching lion, a creature not native to China; a towering stone fluted column with dragons raised in relief; and a fluted silver box—all point to the influence of Persian and Hellenistic art. Two gold belt buckles—one with brilliant granulation and the other ornamented with inlaid gems—and a gilt bronze horse frontlet with a fantastic animal in openwork were inspired by nomadic art of the northern steppes.

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Lion, Eastern Han dynasty (25–220). Stone, H. 38 9/16 in. (98 cm); W. 18 7/8 in. (48 cm); L. 51 3/16 in. (130 cm); estimated Wt. 1272 lb. (577 kg). Formerly at the County Academy of Linzi, ShandongPhoto: Courtesy Shandong Provincial Museum

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Column with Dragons and Inscriptions, Eastern Han dynasty (25–220), 2nd century. Stone, H. 85 1/16 in. (216 cm); Diam. of rim 13 3/4 in. (35 cm); Diam. of base 13 in. (33 cm); Wt. 1455 lbs (660 kg). Unearthed at Sunjiazhuang, Longshan Town, Licheng county [current Zhangqiu City], Shandong, 1896Photo: Courtesy Shandong Provincial Museum

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Belt Buckle with Granulation, Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 220), ca. 1st century B.C.–1st century A.D. Gold inlaid with semiprecious stones. W. 2 5/16 in. (5.9 cm): L. 3 13/16 in. (9.7 cm), Wt. 1.709 oz. (48.45 g). Excavated from the site of Fotress Bogedaqin, Yanqi county, Xinjiang, 1975. Photo: Courtesy Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum

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Ornamental Plaque, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9)Gold inlaid with agate, turquoise, and mother-of-pearlH. 3 1/8 in. (8 cm); L.7 7/8 in. (20 cm). Excavated from Matengkong, Yanta District, Xi'an, ShaanxiPhoto: Courtesy Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology

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Harness Ornament, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9)Gilt bronzeH. 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm); W. 3 1/8 in. (8 cm). Excavated from Luozhuang, Zhangqiu, Shandong, 2000Photo: Courtesy Jinan Municipal Institute of Archaeology

Maritime trade brought China abundant supplies of spices, gemstones, glassware, and metalwork from South and Southeast Asia during the period. The exhibition illustrates this luxury trade with necklaces made of amethyst, aquamarine, beryl, and rock crystal as well as a group of small, animal sculptures in carnelian and multifaceted gold beads. 

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 Assembly of Animal-Shaped Ornaments, India or Southeast Asia, ca. 300–100 BC. Carnelian. Each approx. H. 1/2 in. (1.3 cm): L. 3/8 in. (1.4 cm). Excavated from Tangpu tomb M2, Hepu, Guangxi, 1975. Photo: Courtesy Jinan Municipal Institute of Archaeology

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Beaded Necklace, India, 1st century B.C.–1st century A.D. AmethystL. (approx.) 27 9/16 in. (70 cm); Diam. (largest bead) 1 in. (2.5 cm); Diam. (smallest bead) 1/2 in. (1.2 cm)Excavated from Huangnigang tomb M1, Hepu, Guangxi, 1990. Photo: Courtesy Hepu County Museum

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Beaded Necklace, India, 1st century B.C.–1st century A.D. Aquamarine, beryl, and rock crystal. L. (approx.) 7 7/8 in. (20 cm) Largest bead: L. 1 in. (2.5 cm); W. 9/16 in. (1.5 cm) Smallest bead: L. 5/16 in. (0.8 cm)Excavated from Huangnigang tomb M1, Hepu, Guangxi, 1990. Photo: Courtesy Hepu County Museum

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Six Beads with Granulated Decoration, India or Bactria, ca. 1st–2nd centuryGold with granulationa (11810): L. 3/4 in. (1.9 cm); Diam. 3/8 in. (1 cm) b (11811): Diam. 1/2 in. (1.2 cm): Th. 5/16 in. (0.8 cm) c (11813): Diam. 1/2 in. (1.3 cm) d–f (11814; 1-3), each: Diam. 1/4 in. (0.6 cm)Excavated from Jiuzhiling, Hepu county, Guangxi, 2001. Photo: Courtesy Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Museum

This section also demonstrates that while Han rule nominally extended over a variety of ethnic groups in southwestern China, these groups managed to retain their distinctive identities and regional traditions. The Dian people, living in present-day Yunnan Province, for example, created distinctive and highly developed bronzes in the form of cowry shell containers and ornament plaques. Some masterpieces depicting vivid scenes of festivals and sacrificial rituals will be on view.  

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Cowry Container with Bulls and Mounted Rider, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Bronze, H. 19¾ in. (50.2 cm), Diam. 9⅞ in. (25 cm). Excavated in 1956, tomb no. 10, Shizhaishan, Jinning, Yunnan Province. Photo: Courtesy Yunnan Provincial Museum, Kunming

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Ornament with Two Dancers, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Gilt bronze. H. 4 3/4 in. (12 cm); W. 7 5/16 in. (18.5 cm). Excavated in 1956, tomb no. 13, Shizhaishan, Jinning, Yunnan Province. Photo: Courtesy Yunnan Provincial Museum, Kunming

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Lamp in the Shape of a Mythical Bird, Western Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 9). Bronze. H. 13 in. (33 cm); W. 5 7/8 in. (15 cm); L. 16 9/16 in. (42 cm). Excavated from Tomb no. 1, Wangniuling, Hepu County, Guangxi, 1971Photo: Courtesy Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Museum

The exhibition closes with an examination of the numinous world of deities, spirits, and the afterlife. Fantastic images of the Queen Mother of the West and the half-human, half-serpent creator deities Fu Xi and Nu Wa open a window onto Han religious practices. Both a fabulous bronze “money tree” sculpture, on which a staggering number of coins “grow,” and a tall painted pottery lamp with multiple branches holding birds, animals, and supernatural beings provide glimpses of a heavenly world, while a large stone tomb gateway depicts the tomb occupants being guided by immortals to a celestial realm. All of these works predate the arrival in China of Buddhist concepts of paradise. 

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 Money Tree, Eastern Han dynasty (25–220), 2nd century. Bronze. Overall H. 59 13/16 in. (152 cm) Base (base): H. 18 1/8 in. (46 cm); W. 9 7/16 in. (24 cm); L. 10 1/4 in. (26 cm). Excavated from Shixiangcun, Wanfuxiang, Guanghan city, Sichuan, 1983. Photo: Courtesy Guanghan Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics

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Lamp with Sixteen BranchesEastern Han dynasty (25–220). Earthenware with pigmentH. 43 5/16 in. (110 cm); Diam. of base: 14 3/4–15 3/8 in. (37.5–39 cm). Excavated from Tomb 10 at Tonghuagou, Jiyuan, Henan, 1991Photo: Courtesy Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology

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Model of a Multistory House, Eastern Han dynasty (A.D. 25–220). Earthenware with pigment, H. 68⅞ in. (175 cm), L. 34¼ in. (87 cm). Excavated in 1988, Jiaozuo, Henan Province. Photo: Courtesy Henan Museum, Zhengzhou 

A large gilt-bronze mirror made at the peak of Han power will provide a fitting coda to the exhibition. The back of the mirror is embellished with a raised design of dragons, birds, and turtles amid swirling clouds and a long inscription, expressing the spirit of the age, when people from all parts of the empire began to identify themselves as citizens of the Central Kingdom—the Chinese name for “China”—as their common homeland. This is the ultimate legacy of the Qin and Han dynasties. 

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Mirror, Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 220). Bronze. Diam. 7 5/16 in. (18.6 cm). Excavated from Tomb no. 211 at Wujialing, Changsha, Hunan, 1952. Photo: Courtesy National Museum of China