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Theodoor Rombouts (Antwerp 1597–1637 Antwerp), Card Players in an InteriorOil on canvas (Signed lower right: T. ROMBOVTS), 147 x 186 cm© 2017 London Art Week

ProvenanceBaron Corneille Osy de Zegwart (1757–1831); and by descent to Jean Osy de Zegwart (1792– 1866). And by descent to Baron Edouard Osy de Zegwart (1832–1900), governor of Antwerp. And by descent to Baroness Osy de Zegwart and by descent in her family until 2014.

NoteTheodoor Rombouts was the primary exponent of Flemish Caravaggism, a brief but important artistic phenomenon that peaked in the 1620s. Born in Antwerp in 1597, the history and genre painter is best known for his large-scale secular works depicting merry companies, music scenes and card-playing characters in compact compositions. His half-length figures, firmly modelled and always lively, wear theatrical costumes and are set in chiaroscuro lighting typical of the Flemish Caravaggisti, also known as the Antwerp Tenebrosi. The artist began as a pupil of François van Lanckvelt in 1608 and then studied under Abraham Janssens (c.1575–1632), whose influence is evident throughout his career. Sometime after drafting his last will and testament in 1616 Rombouts left for Rome where he quickly embraced the style of Caravaggio (1571–1610) and Bartolomeo Manfredi (1582–1622). There is little known about his time in Italy but the documentation that does exist places the artist in the Roman parish of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in 1620, which means that Dirck van Baburen (c.1592/93–1624), David de Haen (1585–1622) and Manfredi were living nearby. Enticed by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Rombouts also probably worked in Florence. Rombouts returned to his native city in 1625; he became a master in the painters' guild and a dean of the guild from 1629 to 1630. In 1627 he married Anna van Thielen, the sister of one of his pupils, flower painter Jan Philip van Thielen (1618–1667). The couple welcomed the birth of their daughter, Anna Maria, the following year. The successful artist painted mostly for private clients and for the open market but he also executed some altarpieces, with most commissions coming from Ghent. Though best known for his work in the Caravaggesque idiom, Rombouts's artistic development after returning to Antwerp followed popular taste. As the fashionable interest in Caravaggism began to wane after 1630, the savvy artist moved in the direction of Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) and Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641), towards greater refinement in his palette and surfaces. According to Leonard J. Slatkes, Rombouts's works were always only superficially Caravaggesque and were more profoundly shaped by the influences of his many Flemish baroque contemporaries.1 Little is known of his Antwerp workshop but his pupils included Nicolaas van Eyck (1617–1679), Jan Philip van Thielen and Paulus Robyns. Near the end of his life he attempted to replicate a house and studio in imitation of Rubens. The costly endeavour apparently incurred heavy debts, which he never had the opportunity to resolve due to his untimely death in 1637. The present work, Card Players in an Interior, belongs among the finest and most representative works of Rombouts's Caravaggesque genre scenes. Recalling Manfredi's merry company pictures, there is a marked sense of monumentality to the five figures that are arranged around a carpeted table, engaged in a game of cards. The individuals are realistic and expressive; the scene appears convincingly spontaneous and natural. Rombouts introduces repoussoir figures that confront the viewer and direct attention to the central bearded figure who stares down at his hand of cards, presumably a self-portrait. Rombouts also included a portrait of his wife, Anna, in the hatted figure seated beside him. The inclusion of self-portraits and portraits of family members was not unusual in Dutch and Flemish genre painting, despite the potentially negative associations of moralising subjects. Card playing was perceived as a time-waster at best and, at worst, was associated with any number of disreputable behaviours. Though no alcohol is depicted, coins are strewn about the table: a reference to the ‘unwholesome' activity of gambling. Portraits of Rombouts, his wife and even his young daughter can be seen in another of his works, The Backgammon Players, at the North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh (fig. 1), in which the lavishly dressed soldier bears the artist's likeness. This comparison not only confirms the identities of the Theodoor and Anna in our picture but also helps to date it. The Backgammon Players, painted in 1634, demonstrates Rombouts's move away from Caravaggism towards the prevailing baroque style as it evolved in Antwerp. Unlike our picture, the Raleigh composition is set in a deeper space with vaguely classicising figures. The palette is brighter, the lighting more diffuse and the costumes more sophisticated. The luxurious shimmering fabrics speak of the direct influence of Rubens and Van Dyck. Our Card Players was certainly produced earlier when Rombouts was still painting under the influence of Roman Caravaggism, adeptly applying chiaroscuro and local colour to his rustically expressive scenes.

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Matthias Stomer (c.1600–after 1652), The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomewcirca 1630-5. Oil on canvas, 44 x 62 in. (111.8 x 157.5 cm.) © 2017 London Art Week

Note: Matthias Stomer ranks among the most important and prolific Netherlandish masters of the seventeenth century who were active in Italy. This talented painter was among the last of the famed Dutch Caravaggisti. Although Stomer's birthplace cannot be documented with any certainty, the name Stom is of Southern Netherlandish (Flemish) derivation and it is possible that he emigrated from this region, like so many of his countrymen, to the Dutch Republic. Here he might have received his artistic training in Utrecht or possibly Amersfoort. The influence of Dutch painters from both those towns in terms of style and subject matter is readily detectable in his earliest work, in particular the influence of the prominent Utrecht painter, Gerrit van Honthorst, as well as that of Hendrick ter Brugghen, Joachim Wtewael or the venerable Abraham Bloemaert. In 1630 Stomer travelled to Rome and stayed there until around 1635. Our picture, The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, was painted during this Roman period and is an important picture within his overall oeuvre. Saint Bartholomew is traditionally identified as one of Christ's original twelve apostles. After the Resurrection, Bartholomew is believed to have preached the gospel in India and Armenia. In the latter region, he was flayed alive and then hung upside down for refusing to worship idols. In Stomer's dramatic canvas, the doomed saint is posed frontally in half-length. He is stripped to his loincloth and one of the executioners has already begun his grisly task. Stomer has added the remarkable motif of a figure in a striking terracotta-coloured robe at the far left, perhaps a pagan priest, who holds a golden statuette of Minerva before the elderly saint, thereby contextualising the immediate cause of his martyrdom. Stomer was probably familiar with a picture of the saint's martyrdom painted in Rome by the French Caravaggist Valentin de Boulogne, datable to c.1616.

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Address of Exhibition: 6 St.James's Place, London, SW1A 1NP

London Art Week, 30 June – 7 July 2017