1569427324460900x349

Raphael (1483–1520), Eight Apostles, c. 1514, red chalk over stylus underdrawing and traces of leadpoint on laid paper, cut in two pieces and rejoined; laid down sheet: 8.1 x 23.2 cm (3 3/16 x 9 1/8 in.) support: 9.4 x 24.8 cm (3 11/16 x 9 3/4 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Woodner Collection.

Washington, DC—Raphael (1483–1520) was the first and greatest figure in the modern classical tradition of Western art. In celebration of the 500th anniversary of his death, the National Gallery of Art will present 26 prints and drawings from its own collection of works by Raphael’s contemporaries as well as four drawings by the Renaissance master himself. Raphael and His Circle will convey the complexity, range, and immediate influence of his style as it became the standard for aesthetic excellence in Western art. The exhibition will be on view from February 16 through June 14, 2020.

Raphael 500

Several major exhibitions have been organized to mark the 500th anniversary of Raphael’s death. The Gallery will lend several important works to these exhibitions while offering its own homage through this exhibition and the continuing permanent display of its five paintings by Raphael—the largest and most important group outside of Europe. The Galleria Nazionale delle Marche inaugurates the year’s tribute with an exhibition in his hometown of Urbino (Raphael and His Friends of Urbino, October 3, 2019–January 19, 2020). The celebration continues with exhibitions at the Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome, and the National Gallery, London (The Credit Suisse Exhibition: Raphael, October 3, 2020–January 24, 2021). At the Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, a newly conserved preparatory cartoon (c. 1508) for the Vatican fresco School of Athens (1509) is on view. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, will be highlighting their set of seven full-scale cartoons by Raphael for tapestries.

The Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist

Raphael (1483–1520), The Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist, c. 1507, black chalk with traces of white chalk, outlines pricked for transfer; laid down, overall (approximate): 93.8 x 67 cm (36 15/16 x 26 3/8 in.), framed: 138.8 x 112.4 x 12.1 cm (54 5/8 x 44 1/4 x 4 3/4 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Purchased with funds from The Armand Hammer Foundation.

About the Exhibition

Raphael and His Circle features 26 prints and drawings by Raphael’s collaborators and followers, and by printmakers who were inspired by him. The exhibition includes four drawings by Raphael from the Gallery’s collection: the sheet from which the design of his painting Saint George and the Dragon (c. 1506, National Gallery of Art, Washington) was transferred; the cartoon for the so-called Belle Jardinière (La Vierge à l'Enfant avec le petit saint Jean-Baptiste, 1507 or 1508, Musée du Louvre, Paris); a detailed representation of the prophets Hosea and Jonah; and a well-known study for part of the frescoes in the church of Santa Maria della Pace in Rome. Each of these drawings is an advanced preparatory study for an important extant work. Together they represent Raphael’s immediate influence and artistic development.

Saint George and the Dragon

Raphael (1483–1520), Saint George and the Dragonbrush and brown ink heightened with white over black chalk, incised with stylus, overall (approximate): 24.5 x 20.3 cm (9 5/8 x 8 in.),National Gallery of Art, Washington, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund.

The Prophets Hosea and Jonah

Raphael (1483–1520), The Prophets Hosea and Jonah, c. 1510, pen and brown ink with brown wash over charcoal and blind stylus, heightened with white gouache and squared for transfer with blind stylus and red chalk, on laid paper, overall: 26.2 x 20 cm (10 5/16 x 7 7/8 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, The Armand Hammer Collection.

Nine drawings by his closest collaborators and followers suggest the collective nature of Raphael’s later activity and the origins of mannerism. Four pen-and-ink drawings by Giulio Romano (1499–1546) include a dramatic rendering of Saint Michael (c. 1530). Two chalk drawings by Polidoro da Caravaggio (c. 1499–probably 1543) feature a fleeing barbarian from the early 1520s and A Deathbed Scene (c. 1521/1522) with a drawing of a seated woman on the reverse in red chalk. Also on view are two pen-and-ink drawings by Perino del Vaga (1501–1547), including the remarkable Alexander Consecrating the Altars for the Twelve Olympian Gods (1545/1547) and a sheet of figure studies. 

Saint Michael

Giulio Romano (1499–1546), Saint Michael, c. 1530, pen and brown ink,overall: 38.6 x 29 cm (15 3/16 x 11 7/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund.

A Deathbed Scene

Polidoro da Caravaggio (c. 1499–probably 1543), A Deathbed Scene [recto], c. 1521/1522,red chalk on laid paper, overall: 21 x 29 cm (8 1/4 x 11 7/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Gift of David E. Rust, in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the National Gallery of Art.

Fleeing Barbarian

Polidoro da Caravaggio (c. 1499–probably 1543), Fleeing Barbarian, early 1520s, black chalk on laid paper, sheet: 17.8 x 12.1 cm (7 x 4 3/4 in.), mount: 27.2 x 21.2 cm (10 11/16 x 8 3/8 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Joseph F. McCrindle Collection.

Alexander Consecrating the Altars for the Twelve Olympian Gods

Perino del Vaga (1501–1547), Alexander Consecrating the Altars for the Twelve Olympian Gods, 1545/1547, pen and brown ink with gray wash over black chalk on laid paper; laid down,overall: 31.7 x 21 cm (12 1/2 x 8 1/4 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Woodner Collection, Gift of Dian Woodner. 

Raphael was the first artist to exploit the possibilities of printmaking to disseminate his inventions, enhance his reputation, and generate income. This practice caused his art to become a universal European language. Raphael’s prints demonstrated to an international audience his magisterial command of complex, multifigure compositions and his modern style rooted in the study of ancient art. This exhibition includes 10 engravings by one of the earliest interpreters of his designs, Marcantonio Raimondi (c. 1480–c. 1534), whose engravings of Parnassus and The Holy Family, as well as The Massacre of the Innocents (c. 1511) show Raphael’s influence. Around 1510 Raphael began collaborating with Marcantonio on several engravings that successfully circulated Raphael’s works beyond the Roman churches and palaces in which they were housed. Raimondi’s followers, Agostino dei Musi (c. 1490–1536) and Marco Dente (c. 1493–1527), also directly reference works by Raphael in their engravings, including Musi’s The Battle with the Cutlass. Also on view is Ugo da Carpi’s (c. 1480–1532) David Slaying Goliath, based on a design by Raphael in the Vatican, which is the only chiaroscuro woodcut in the exhibition.

The Holy Family

Marcantonio Raimondi (c. 1480–c. 1534) after Raphael, The Holy Family, engraving, sheet (trimmed to plate mark): 41.1 x 27.5 cm (16 3/16 x 10 13/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Rosenwald Collection.

The Massacre of the Innocents

Marcantonio Raimondi (c. 1480–c. 1534) after Raphael, The Massacre of the Innocents, c. 1511, engraving, sheet (trimmed within plate mark): 28.1 x 43.4 cm (11 1/16 x 17 1/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Print Purchase Fund (Rosenwald Collection).

Agostino dei Musi

Agostino dei Musi (c. 1490–1536) after Raphael, The Battle with the Cutlassengraving, sheet: 33.7 x 46.2 cm (13 1/4 x 18 3/16 in.),National Gallery of Art, Washington, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund.

Marco Dente

Marco Dente (c. 1493–1527) after Raphael, The Virgin with a Fishengraving, sheet: 26.4 x 22 cm (10 3/8 x 8 11/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund.

Ugo da Carpi

Ugo da Carpi (c. 1480–1532) after Raphael, David Slaying Goliathchiaroscuro woodcut (3 blocks), sheet: 27.1 x 38.8 cm (10 11/16 x 15 1/4 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Gift of David Keppel.

Raphael (1483–1520)

Raffaelo di Giovanni Santi, known as Raphael, was a younger contemporary of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, all of whom epitomize the High Renaissance in Italy. It is thought that Raphael’s early training was with his father, who was a painter at the court of Urbino. He joined the workshop of Pietro Perugino sometime after the death of his father, when Raphael was 11 years old.

Late in 1504, Raphael moved to Florence, drawn by Leonardo’s softly shadowed forms, natural figure groupings, and simplified settings. In 1508 the pope summoned Raphael to Rome, where he was influenced by the idealized classical art of the city's ancient past. He also responded to the more energetic and physical style of Michelangelo, whose works he had already begun to study in Florence. Raphael remained in Rome for the last 12 years of his life, preparing monumental frescoes for the papal chambers, designing tapestries for the Sistine Chapel, and painting mythological scenes. He was also the city’s leading portraitist, creating penetrating images that engage viewer and sitter with a new intensity for the time. When he died at age 37, the pope ordered that Raphael, who had been keeper of antiquities, be buried in the Pantheon.

The exhibition is organized by the National Gallery of Art, Washington.

The exhibition is curated by Jonathan Bober, Andrew W. Mellon Senior Curator of Prints and Drawings, National Gallery of Art.

Pietro Perugino

Pietro Perugino (c. 1450 - 1523), The Adoration of the Shepherds, c. 1505, pen and brown ink over black chalk on laid paper, overall: 13.3 x 21.6 cm (5 1/4 x 8 1/2 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Anonymous Gift.

The Lamentation of the Virgin

Marcantonio Raimondi (c. 1480–c. 1534) after Raphael, The Lamentation of the Virgin, 1510, engraving, sheet (trimmed to plate mark): 32.1 x 23.3 cm (12 5/8 x 9 3/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Rosenwald Collection.

Marcantonio Raimondi after Raphael

 Marcantonio Raimondi (c. 1480–c. 1534) after Raphael, Il Morbetto (The Plague), engraving, sheet (trimmed to plate mark): 19.5 x 25.2 cm (7 11/16 x 9 15/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Gift of W.G. Russell Allen.

River God

Giulio Romano (1499–1546)River God, c. 1528, pen and brown ink with brown wash on laid paper, overall (lunette): 17 x 27.5 cm (6 11/16 x 10 13/16 in.), overall: 86.3 cm (34 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Richard King Mellon Charitable Trusts.

The Sacrifice of a Goat to Jupiter

Giulio Romano (1499–1546)The Sacrifice of a Goat to Jupiterpen and brown ink with brown wash over black chalk on laid paper, overall: 28.9 x 20.9 cm (11 3/8 x 8 1/4 in.), support: 42.5 x 34.5 cm (16 3/4 x 13 9/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund.

D12063

Giulio Romano (1499–1546), The Four Elements, c. 1530, pen and brown ink with brown wash on laid paper, overall: 24.2 x 33.7 cm (9 1/2 x 13 1/4 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Wolfgang Ratjen Collection, Patrons' Permanent Fund.

Master of the Die

Master of the Die (active c. 1532) after Raphael, Apollo and Marsyasengraving, sheet (trimmed to plate mark): 18.7 x 28.3 cm (7 3/8 x 11 1/8 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund.

Figure Studies

Perino del Vaga (1501–1547), Figure Studies [recto]pen and brown ink on laid paper? overall: 19.2 x 27.4 cm (7 9/16 x 10 13/16 in.)? National Gallery of Art, Washington, Pepita Milmore Memorial Fund.

Altarpiece of the Madonna and Child

Perino del Vaga (1501–1547), Altarpiece of the Madonna and Child with Saints, in Its Architectural Setting, 1528/1537, pen and brown ink on laid paper, overall: 23.6 x 16.1 cm (9 5/16 x 6 5/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Gift of The Circle of the National Gallery of Art.