PARIS.- From October 21st, 2021 to February 20th, 2022, the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris presents ‘Cartier and Islamic Art: In Search of Modernity’, co-organized by the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, and the Dallas Museum of Art, with the exceptional collaboration of the Musée du Louvre and the support of Cartier.
This exhibition shows the influence of Islamic Art on the high jewellery Maison Cartier in its design of jewellery and precious objects from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day.
More than 500 pieces including jewellery and objects from the Cartier Collection, private and public loans, masterpieces of Islamic art, drawings, books, photographs and archival documents, trace the origins of the jeweller’s interest in Oriental motifs.
The exhibition explores the origins of this influence through the Parisian cultural context and the figure of Louis and Jacques Cartier, two of the founder’s grandsons, who played a major role in creating a new aesthetic suffused with modernity. The American architectural firm DS+R (Diller Scofidio + Renfro) was commissioned to design the exhibition’s scenography.
Facing panel, Iran Late 14th - 15th century. Ceramic mosaic Musée du Louvre, Paris département des Arts de l’Islam, on loan from the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris. © 2010 musée du Louvre / Raphaël Chipault
Founded in 1847 by Louis-François Cartier, the House of Cartier initially specialised in selling jewellery and works of art. His son, Alfred, took over the management of the business in 1874, and his eldest son, Louis, later joined him in 1898. By that time, Cartier was designing its own jewellery, while continuing to resell antique pieces. At the beginning of the 20th century, Louis Cartier sought new inspiration. At the time Paris was the epicentre of the Islamic art trade and it was undoubtedly through major exhibitions organised at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1903 and then in Munich in 1910, that Louis enthusiastically discovered these new shapes which were gradually spreading throughout French society.
Pyxis, Sicily, 15th century. Ivory (elephant), copper alloy. Exhibited at the Islamic Arts exhibition, Paris Musée des Arts Décoratifs, 1903. Musée du Louvre, Paris département des Arts de l’Islam. © 2015 musée du Louvre / Chipault - Soligny
Cigarette case Persian, Cartier Paris, 1924. Gold, enamel, onyx. Nils Herrmann. Cartier Collection © Cartier
The exhibition is organised as a themed chronological tour divided into two parts, the first of which explores the origins of this interest in Islamic art and architecture through the cultural backdrop of Paris at the beginning of the 20th century and reviews the creative context among designers and studios as they searched for sources of inspiration. The second part illustrates the lexicon of forms inspired by Islamic art, from the start of the 20th century to the present day.
From the outset, visitors find themselves immersed in these shapes and motifs with three of Cartier’s iconic creations set against masterpieces of Islamic art. Along the North Gallery, you are invited, room after room, to explore the creative process and the initial sources of inspiration in jewellery design. The books in Louis Cartier’s library and his collection of Islamic art were made available as resources for designers. Louis’ personal collection, reconstructed thanks to the archives of the House of Cartier, is represented here through several masterpieces reunited for the first time since the dispersion of his collection. Charles Jacqueau was an important as well as brilliant member of Cartier’s team of designers. A selection of his design drawings is presented here thanks to an exceptional loan from the Petit Palais, Fine Arts Museum of Paris.
The exhibition continues by exploring Jacques Cartier’s travels, including to India in 1911, where he met with Maharajahs of the subcontinent. The trading of gemstones and pearls offered Jacques Cartier a way into this country. It enabled him to build relationships with Maharajahs all the while collecting antique and contemporary jewellery, which he would either resell unchanged, use as inspiration, or dismantle for integration into new designs.
These different sources of inspiration, and the Oriental jewellery that enriched the House of Cartier’s collections helped to redefine shapes as well as craftsmanship techniques. The head ornaments, tassels, bazubands (an elongated bracelet worn on the upper arm) came in a wide range of shapes, colours and materials to suit the fashions of the time. The flexibility of Indian jewellery led to technical innovation, new settings, and different methods of assembling pieces. Incorporating different parts of jewellery, fragments of Islamic works of art referred to as ‘apprêts,’ and the use of Oriental textiles to create bags and accessories, was also a hallmark of the House of Cartier in the early 20th century.
Box, Iran, 19th century. Wood and marquetry of colored wood, ivory, and metal (khatamkari). Musée du Louvre, Paris, département des Arts de l’Islam. On loan from the Musée des Arts Décoratifs. © Musée du Louvre, Dist. RMN Grand Palais / Hervé Lewandowski
The second part of the exhibition, in the South Gallery, is dedicated to the lexicon of forms inspired by Islamic art, particularly thanks to the collections belonging to the Musée des Arts Décoratifs and the Musée du Louvre. Most of these works were displayed at the first-ever exhibitions devoted to Islamic art. They certainly would have been seen by the Cartier designers or known to them thanks to the publications kept in Louis Cartier’s library.
Although famed for its ‘garland style’ jewellery, from 1904 onwards, Cartier began developing pieces inspired by the geometric patterns of Islamic art found in books about ornamentation and architecture. Enamelled brick decorations from Central Asia and stepped merlons, amongst others, form the basis of a precursory repertoire later described as ‘Art Deco’ - in reference to the ‘Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes’ in Paris in 1925, bringing Cartier into the modern world very early on.
Cartier’s production under the artistic direction of Louis Cartier is notable for the inspiration he took from the Persian world as well as the art of the book. The patterns which decorate bindings – the central medallion surrounded by fleurons and corner pieces – were sometimes reproduced exactly, but more often pulled apart and recreated to form a pattern whose source is indiscernible to the untrained eye. This is the case with mandorlas, palmettes, foliage, sequins, scrolls, scales, etc. Louis innovated with bold combinations of colours and materials, combining lapis lazuli and turquoise, matching the green of jade or emerald with the blue of lapis lazuli or sapphire to create his famous ‘peacock pattern.’
Bandeau, Cartier Paris, special order, 1923. Platinum, diamonds. Nils Herrmann. Cartier Collection © Cartier
Mirror, Turkey, c. 1750-1800. Wood, mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, ivory, paper, coral bead. Musée du Louvre, Paris, département des Arts de l’Islam. On loan from the Musée des Arts Décoratifs © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / image Musée du Louvre.
Portrait of Fath ‘Ali Shah, attributed to Mihr ‘Ali Iran, 1800-1806. Oil on canvas. Musée du Louvre, Paris, département des Arts de l’Islam. On loan from the Château-Domaine national de Versailles. Photo © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée du Louvre) / Hervé Lewandowski.
Pendant, Cartier Paris, special order, 1902. Gold, silver, diamonds. Formerly in Jane Hading collection. Vincent Wulveryck. Cartier Collection © Cartier
In the 1930s, under the artistic direction of Jeanne Toussaint, Cartier’s style gave way to new shapes and colour combinations inspired mainly by India. Tutti Frutti pieces, sautoirs, and voluminous jewellery characterised Cartier’s highly recognisable style and its creations of the second half of the 20th century.
The tour of the exhibition ends in the Central Hall with digital devices created by Elizabeth Diller’s teams from the DS+R studio, bringing another dimension to the jewellery.
Tiara, Cartier Paris, special order, 1914. Platinum, blackened steel, diamonds, rubies. Vincent Wulveryck. Cartier Collection © Cartier
Mortar, Iran, 11th-12th century. Bronze. Musée du Louvre, Paris, département des Arts de l’Islam. On loan from the Musée des Arts Décoratifs © Musée du Louvre, Dist. RMN Grand Palais / Hervé Lewandowski.
Stepped merlon, Iran, 10th-11th century Stucco Paris, Musée du Louvre, département des Arts de l’Islam © Musée du Louvre, Dist. RMN Grand Palais / Claire Tabbagh / Collections Numériques.
Cliquet pin, Cartier Paris, 1920. Platinum, onyx, diamonds, sapphires, coral. Vincent Wulveryck. Cartier Collection © Cartier
Pen box said to have belonged to “Mirza Muhammad Munshi”, Deccan, India, late 16th-early 17th century. Carved walrus ivory, engraved and inlaid with gold, turquoise, black paste, and silk. Ink well: copper alloy, gold leaf, and turquoise. Musée du Louvre, Paris, département des Arts de l’Islam © Musée du Louvre, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Hervé Lewandowski.
Portrait of Louis Cartier, Nadar’s studio, 1898. Médiathèque de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine, Paris. Photo © Ministère de la Culture – Médiathèque de l’architecture et du patrimoine, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Atelier de Nadar
Tiara, Cartier Paris, special order, 1912. Platinum, rock crystal, diamonds. Marian Gérard. Cartier Collection © Cartier.
Arabian no . 2, Owen Jones, Grammaire de l’ornement, pl. 32, Day and Son, Ltd., London, 1865, Cartier Paris Archives © Cartier.
Décoration arabe, Études de motifs décoratifs (détail), d’après la Grammaire de l’ornement de Jones, Cartier Paris, vers 1910[en]Studies of Arab art and Arab-style patterns, Owen Jones, Grammaire de l’ornement Cartier Paris, c. 1910. Graphite and India ink on tracing paper. Cartier Paris Archives. © Cartier.
Hindu necklace, Cartier Paris, 1963. Platinum, gold, diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, rubies. Made as a special order for Daisy Fellowes in 1936, altered at the request of her daughter, the Countess of Castéja, in 1963. Nils Herrmann Cartier Collection © Cartier
Button, India, 18th century. Jade, gold, rubies, emeralds set in kundan, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris © MAD, Paris / Jean Tholance