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Golden Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century. Aga Khan Museum

Chestnut leaf inscribed with a Qur’anic verse from Surat al-Isra’ (“The Night Journey,” Q17:80), which reads: “And say, ‘Lord grant me a good entrance and a goodly exit, and sustain me with Your power.”

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

Arabic composition in gold on a natural leaf, the text comprising the Shahadah in intertwining thuluth script.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

Arabic composition applied on to a natural leaf in gold, the text in the form of a lion incorporating verses praising the Imam 'Ali by al-Sherif al-Murtaza.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century, Museum of Islamic Arts, Qatar.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

In the form of a stork, the text comprising a Sufi verse, signed Abd al-Ghani and with date AH 1311/AD 1893

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

Arabic composition applied onto a natural leaf in gold, the text incorporating the Bismallah and invocations to God and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) within a stylised Sufi cap.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

Arabic composition applied onto a natural leaf in gold, the text incorporating the words Allah, Angels, the Prophets, the Day of Judgment in the form of a sailing boat with seven oars, one for each of the Seven Sleepers.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

The gilt and pierced leaf with applied calligraphic Quranic composition in thuluth script.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

A rare calligraphic composition in gold on a large natural leaf incorporating the hilyeh, the physical attributes of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) signed by Muhammad Helmi, a pupil of Mustafa Izzet Effendi.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

Arabic composition applied onto a natural leaf in gold.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

The gilt and pierced leaf with applied calligraphic Quranic composition in thuluth script.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

An Arabic calligraphic composition applied onto a natural leaf in the shape of a pear incorporating the Bismallah written in thuluth script.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

Arabic composition applied in the shape of a vase onto a natural leaf, the text from the Qur'an, surat al-Ahzab, chapter XXXIII, verse 23.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

The gilt and pierced leaf with applied calligraphic Qur'anic composition in thuluth script.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

Text of the Bismallah (‘In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful’) is made to fit inside the natural shape of the leaf. The vertical strokes of the letters follow the line of the stem of the leaf.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century

Arabic composition gold calligraphy applied onto a natural tree leaf in gold.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

Arabic composition applied onto a natural leaf in gold.

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Calligraphy Leaf, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century.

Arabic composition applied onto a natural leaf in gold. During this period, Ottoman calligraphers were interested in producing compositions which took various shapes.