Carlo Maratti (Camerano 1625 - Roma 1713), Portrait of Giovanna Garzoni, circa 1665. Oil on canvas, 64 x 49 cm. Ascoli Piceno, Pinacoteca Civica.
FLORENCE.- Flowers, plants and exotic shells, bizarre insects and animals with expressions bordering on the human: the forms and the poetry of nature take pride of place in the exhibition entitled “The Immensity of the Universe in the art of Giovanna Garzoni” hosted in the Andito degli Angiolini from 28 May to 28 June.
With this substantial retrospective (the first large monographic exhibition devoted to the Baroque female painter from the Marche) the Gallerie degli Uffizi was planning to celebrate a major female figure to mark Women's Day on 8 March 2020. "Hibernated" by the lockdown, however, the exhibition has now become a symbol of the return to normal life after the closure of almost three months occasioned by the COVID-19 epidemic.
The exhibition comprises roughly 100 paintings, illuminations on parchment (Garzoni's favourite support) and drawings, in addition to a large floral altar fontral over 4 mt. in length, accompanied by and interacting with period porcelain, ivory pieces and Renaissance bronzes. Imaginative and inquisitive by nature, Garzoni, who was born in Ascoli Piceno in c. 1600, considerably expanded her stylistic vocabulary thanks to the remarkable penchant for travel that made her one of the most cultivated and cosmopolitan women painters of her age.
Giovanna Garzoni was born in Ascoli Piceno in c. 1600 and picked up the technique of oil painting, probably from her uncle Pietro Gaia, in Venice while still a young girl. One of her first commissions was for a painting in a series depicting the Apostles for the church of the Ospedale degli Incurabili in Venice, a series to which such prestigious masters as Domenico Tintoretto also contributed. At the same time, she trained in the arts of calligraphy and miniature painting whil also acquiring skill as a singer and a player of string instruments, a talent that she was able to display at the Medici court at the age of 19. At 22 she wed the Venetian portrait artist Tiberio Tinelli, but their marriage failed on account of a vow of chastity which Giovanna had taken to thwart a prophesy predicting that she would die in childbirth. The marriage came to an end in 1624, with her relatives preparing to testify to Tinelli's use of witchcraft. Heeding her brother's advice to seek her "freedom", Giovanna moved to Naples in 1630, where she took up service with the Duke of Alcalà in the company of Artemisia Gentileschi. Passing through Rome, she attracted the patronage of the Barberini family and was introduced to the Accademia dei Lincei by the scholar Cassiano Dal Pozzo. In 1632 she moved to Turin where she was granted the title of "Miniaturist to Madama Reale”. On the Duke of Savoy's death in 1637, she travelled, again in Artemisia's company, to the court of King Charles I in London where she made the acquaintaince of Inigo Jones. By late 1639 she was a member of Cardinal Richelieu's entourage in Paris, but from 1642 to 1651 she lived mainly in Florence, working for the Medici and primarily producing miniatures. She finally settled in Rome, where she died in 1670 and was buried in the church of the Accademia di San Luca, the first woman ever to be granted the privilege.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 – Rome 1670), Self-portrait as Apollo, circa 1618–1620. Tempera on parchment, laid down on linen, 42 x 33 cm. Signed on the instrument: “Giovanna Garzoni F” Rome, Segretariato Generale della Repubblica, Palazzo del Quirinale.
She lived at the courts of Venice and Turin, spent several years with the Medici in Florence, worked in Naples and in France, where she painted a portrait of Cardinal Richelieu (on display in the exhibition), and even frequented the court of King Charles I in England, a fact borne out by documents on show in this exhibition for the very first time. She was a friend of Artemisia Gentileschi, that other great woman artist of the 17th century, with whom she shared both travel and experiences and who was something of a role model for her in that she was a few years Giovanna's senior. Shrewd in currying favour with her patrons, Garzoni specialised in miniatures on parchment, excelling in particular in the depiction of still-lifes with exotic curios and subjects taken from the plant and animal world. A leading player in the cultural affairs of her age, she rapidly built a reputation for herself and was admired throughout Europe, to the point where she was even portrayed in her old age by Carlo Maratta, the prince of Rome's Accademia di San Luca and future restorer of Raphael's masterpieces. Giovanna Garzoni was endowed with astonishing intellectual inquisitiveness and originality, which translated into penetrating and stringent observation of the natural world. The vast corpus of her work owned by the Gabinetto Stampe e Disegni degli Uffizi is supplemented in the exhibition by a series of loans from private collections and from Italian and foreign museums illustrating the full creative spectrum of her career. Of particular interest are her precious floral miniatures with vases in the Chinese style and shells from tropical countries and her still "yet living" lifes with fruit, exotic plants and small animals of all kinds (from insects depicted in their infinite variety to snails, birds and crickets) alongside the exhibition's iconic work, her celebrated English Small Dog portrayed on a table with a Chinese cup and some biscuits. But Garzoni also expressed her uniquely creative talent in the way she juxtaposed objects and human figures, for instance in the Old Man of Artimino surrounded by the produce of his labours as a farmer (sausages, fruit, eggs and cheeses) and by his farm animals (chickens and a dog). Equally striking is Garzoni's Self-portrait as a young girl in the guise of the god Apollo, which she painted when barely twenty years old, and her unusual miniature of the Ethiopian Prince Zaga Christ, whom she portrayed while at the Court of the House of Savoy in Turin. And finally, the exhibition could hardly have avoided paying tribute to Raphael (as the Scuderie del Quirinale in Rome hosts a major exhibition to mark the 500th anniversary of his death) in the shape of a miniature copy, painted by Garzoni in 1649, of the Madonna della Seggiola which was already a showpiece of the Medici collections in her day and which still hangs in the Galleria Palatina di Palazzo Pitti to this day.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 – Rome 1670), Chinese Vase with Tulips, Anemones and Jonquils, with a Fig and a Fava Bean, circa 1650–1655. Tempera with traces of black pencil on parchment, 50.6 x 36.2 cm. Florence, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 – Rome 1670), Chinese Vase with Tulips, Anemones, Daffodils, a Hyacinth, and a Calendula, with Two Plums and Two Pea Pods, c. 1650-1655. Tempera with traces of black pencil on parchment. Florence, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 – Rome 1670), Chinese Plate with Artichokes, a Rose and Strawberries, circa 1655–1662. Tempera on parchment, 24.0 x 32.0 cm, Florence, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Galleria Palatina.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), Chinese Bowl with Figs, a Bird, and Cherries, 1651-62. Watercolour on parchment, 260 x 380 mm, Florence, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Galleria Palatina..
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 – Rome 1670), Lapdog with Biscotti and a Chinese Cup, circa 1648. Tempera on parchment, 27,5 x 39,5 cm. Signed in the lower right corner: “Giovanna Garzoni F.” Florence, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Palazzo Pitti, Galleria Palatina.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), Portrait of Zaga Christ (c. 1608-1638), 1635. Watercolour and bodycolour on vellum mounted on card, later silver frame with scroll top. Oval 2 ¼ in (57 mm) high. © 2020 Philip Mould & Company.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), from Raffaello Madonna della seggiola , 1649, tempera on parchment glued on slate; 23.5 x 23.5 cm, signed on the upright of the chair “Giovanna Garzoni. F. ",Private collection.
Exhibition curator Sheila Barker: “The aim of this exhibition is to showcase Garzoni's astonishing geographical breadth and scope while also illustrating her breathtakingly penetrating artistic vision. Her starting point is always the heart, the fulcrum of people and things, which she then subjects to almost microscopic analysis. In particular, Garzoni focuses her attention on the exotic items in her patrons' collections, organising them in compositions that speak of the growing cosmopolitanism in the life of Europe's courts and the intense circulation of goods throughout the world in this particular historical moment when the globalisation process was taking its first steps”.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), Lioness with an open eye , circa 1640, in: Giovanna Garzoni, Book of miniatures and drawings, fol. 6, pen and watercolor on paper, 18.2 x 26.8 cm, Rome, National Academy of San Luca.
The exhibition also plays a leading role in an initiative developed by Advancing Women Artists (Awa), which has chosen it to launch a worldwide challenge to artists and institutions to produce new creations inspired precisely by the art of Giovanna Garzoni (http://advancingwomenartists.org/).
“In creating a challenge dedicated to this exhibition, we hope that the exhibition itself may become a cultural bridge between people of different countries – remarked Awa Director Linda Falcone – We hope that contemporary artists join in this global conversation on art and that through their work they let us know the extent to which Garzoni's achievements colour their creativity today”.
The exhibition is curated by Sheila Barker in conjunction with the Medici Archives Project; the catalogue is published by Sillabe; the English edition was made possible thanks to a contribution from Awa.
PALAZZO PITTI REOPENS IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANTI-COVID MEASURES
All the national and regional measures designed to contain the spread of COVID-19 are in force in Palazzo Pitti. Thus no one with a temperature of 37.5°C or over is allowed in (temperatures are taken at the entrance); visitors must wear masks for the duration of their visit; they must stand at least 1.8 mt. from each other and from members of staff; no crowds must be formed; groups cannot comprise more than 10 people; and tour guides must use a whisper system at all times. The price of admission is unchanged, but opening hours are slightly different in this first phase after reopening. To permit daily sanitisation, Palazzo Pitti will be open from 8.30 am to 1.30 pm, while the Tesoro dei Granduchi and Museo delle Porcellane, where it is impossible to ensure compliance with social distancing measures for architectural and logistical reasons, will remain closed for the time being.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), Hyacinth plant with four cherries, a lizard and an artichoke, around 1648, tempera and traces of black pencil on parchment; 53.2 x 40.1 cm, Florence, Cabinet of Uffizi drawings and prints.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), Ranunculus with Two Almonds and a Hymenopteran. Tempera and traces of black pencil on vellum, 537 x 411 mm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), Vase with Flowers, a Peach and a Butterfly. Tempera and traces of black pencil on vellum, 663 x 479 mm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 – Rome 1670), Yixing vase of flowers with two shells; watercolor, formerly kept in the Cabinet of Drawings and Prints, The Uffizi Gallery of Florence. Now in the Museum of Still Life (Natura Morta), deposits.
Giovanna Garzoni (Ascoli Piceno 1600 - Rome 1670), Galleon at sea, circa 1617–1622, in: Giovanna Garzoni, Book of cursive erased characters, c. 44r, black ink on prepared paper, 29.0 x 20.5 cm; 29.0 x 41.5 cm (open), Rome, National Academy of San Luca.